What is C++? Basic Concepts of C++ Programming Language

C++ is being widely used by programmers across the globe for the purpose of competitive programming!

It is a generic multi-purpose programming language that is capable of running on multiple platforms such as Mac, Windows, Unix, Linux, etc.

This low-level programming language was created in the 1980s to support memory manipulation and generic programming. It has influenced several successive programming languages like Java and other newer versions of language C.

It was developed as an adjunct to language C by Bjarne Stroustrup and serves as an important topic for aptitude preparation for millions of IT students today.

Why Should You Learn C++?

C ++ is considered to be the foundation for several advanced programming languages and knowing the C++ basics can place you among the top IT companies. It is a versatile programming language that is highly in demand among professionals.

Programmers can find this language in embedded systems, operating systems, and graphical user interfaces. This is why your aptitude preparation must include C++ basics to devise a program that can adapt to multiple platforms.

Furthermore, since the C++ language is quite similar to Java and the programming language C, it is easy for interested programmers to make the switch.

What are the Differences between C++ and C?

To gain a better understanding of C++ basics and why the language came into existence, you must take a look at the following differences between C++ and language C:

  • Language C is a function-driven language whereas C++ is driven by objects.
  • Language C is often called a procedural language because it does not support OOPS (object-oriented programming). This is not the case with C++. The latter supports all OOPS pillars such as encapsulation, abstraction, polymorphism, and inheritance.
  • C++ is called a superset of C and consists of 63 keywords.
  • C++ also has access modifiers and supports both user-defined and built-in data types.

What are the C++ Basics?

If you’re in the middle of your aptitude preparation and don’t know where to begin learning the C++ language, then the following C++ basics are a good place to start.

  1. C++ Variables:

The backbone of the C++ programming language is formed by the C++ variables. They are nothing but a way for a programmer to store important data elements for use later on.

It works like a memory location and is often considered as the basic storage unit in a program. Programmers can change the stored value in a variable during the execution of the program. There are some rules that must be followed while declaring a variable:

  • The names of the variable must contain only underscores, digits, and letters.
  • The names given to a variable are case-sensitive. For example, the words “Bag” and “bag” will define two different variables.
  • There must not be any special characters or white space in the name of a variable.
  • Every variable name must begin with either an underscore or an alphabet.
  • Lastly, you cannot use a C++ keyword as the variable name.
  1. C++ Control Structures:

The compiler of the program reads the code line by line from left to right and top to bottom whenever a programmer runs a program. This process is known as the code flow. However, when the compiler is reading the code from top to bottom, it reaches a point where it becomes necessary to make a decision.

Based on the decision of the compiler, the program might skip to another part of the code. In certain cases, the compiler might even skip certain codes or re-run a particular code again.

  1. C++ Data Structures:

Data structures in C++ can be defined as a format that can be used by the programmer to store, organise, and modify data elements. They are  a fundamental component of the C++ programming language.

There are two broad categories of data structures in C++:

  • Linear: In this type of data structure, the data elements are arranged in a sequential format. The examples of linear data structures are – arrays, stacks, linked lists, and queues.
  • Non-linear: In this type of data structure, the data elements are stored by the programmer at different levels. The examples of non-linear data structures are graphs and trees.

Learning the capability to work with the above-mentioned data structures during your aptitude preparation can prove to be highly beneficial for your career.

Technical interviews focus extensively on data structures and algorithms and are considered a must-do topic for interview preparation.

  1. C++ Syntax:

Syntax in C++ can be defined as the layout of symbols, words, characters, and expressions. It is defined as a set of rules that a programmer needs to follow to create a functioning piece of code.

If you don’t abide by the syntax rules of the C++ programming language, your code will be prone to system errors.

  • Like other programming languages, C++ is also a case-sensitive programming language. Therefore, the uppercase and lowercase letters here will have different meanings.
  • Before you name any variables, you must remember that the keywords are present in lowercase letters.
  • Every code line in C++ must end with a semicolon or else you’ll end up acquiring system errors.
  • Programmers must carefully allocate white space between variables and keywords in C++.
  1. Decision Making in C++

Decision making in C++ is just like making decisions in real life. For example, the decision of how to study and when to study impacts your exam performance.

You might have to make similar decisions in the C++ programming language to execute the next code block. The decision-making statements in C++ decide the program flow.

There are following types of decision-making statements in C++:

  • If statement
  • Nested if statements
  • .else statements
  • If-else-if ladder statement
  • Jump statements
    • Break
    • Goto
    • Continue
    • Return
  • Switch statements


Not only is the C++ programming language suited for a wide range of industrial projects but also gives you the power to exercise greater control over the data available to you. If you want to leave no stone unturned during the aptitude preparation for the coming IT tech interviews, then you must develop the C++ programming skills.

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